Avian influenza type A virus subtypes H and N


The Avian influenza type A virus subtypes H and N dtec-RT-qPCR-Panel-4 comprises a series of specific targeted reagents designed for Hemagglitinin and neuraminidase typing  of Avian influenza A virus H5, H7, H9 and N1 detection by using qPCR. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses belonging to the Influenzavirus A genus on the Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals. Despite strains of all subtypes have been uncommonly isolated from wild birds with, some isolates of cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. The several subtypes of Influenza A virus are labelled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 17 different H antigens (H1 to H17) and nine different N antigens (N1 to N9). Influenza A is generally recognized as Avian influenza, sometimes called avian flu, and colloquially, bird flu. Subtype H5 is detected worldwide in wild birds and poultry, and usually are low pathogenic viruses. Occasionally highly pathogenic viruses or human infections are detected, such as with Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Avian influenza virus type A subtype H7 infection in humans is uncommon but has been documented in persons who have direct contact with infected birds. Illness in humans may include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory tract symptoms. Depending on H7 strain, illness could be mild to moderate or severe to fatal. Avian influenza virus type A subtype H9 are documented only in a low pathogenic form in humans, but continuously circulates in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry. The neuraminidase N1 is one of the subtypes that can be found in combination with the hemagglutinin subtypes, one of the most relevant is H5N1 for their zoonotic potential. The assay was designed to cover sequences from the core cluster of the subtypes. However, as Influenza virus are fast-evolving microorganisms, the inclusivity cannot be ensured for some new clonal strains of the virus.


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